May 26, 2022, 6:13 AM
Injuries resulting from an accident or trauma are directly associated with cellular death (Ahmadinejad et al., 2021). In adults less than 44 years old, trauma remains the leading cause of death (Ahmadinejad et al., 2021). According to Ahmadinejad et al. (2021), trauma accounts for 40% of all cases requiring hospitalization. In the geriatric cohort, falls remain the most common cause of mechanism of injury (Llompart-Pou et al., 2017). The implication of trauma on the elderly patient group population signifies a higher mortality and morbidity rate than the younger adult population (Llompart-Pou et al., 2017). The overall impact of trauma on both cohorts also implies an increased utilization of healthcare resources (Llompart-Pou et al., 2017). In the elderly, traumatic injuries are the most cause of disability and institutionalization (Llompart-Pou et al., 2017).
The common risk factors of both cohorts can be broken into many parts, such as lifestyle, occupation, chronic disease, etc. (Gioffrè-Florio et al., 2018). Furthermore, frailty and cognition ability are major contributing factors that can lead to traumatic injuries from falls, accidental overdose, etc. (Gioffrè-Florio et al., 2018). Osteoporosis and hip fractures are also common in the elderly patient because aging itself is associated with bone disorders even with the slightest traumatic injury (Gioffrè-Florio et al., 2018). Dementia, stroke, and hearing and visual changes may also lead to traumatic injuries (Gioffrè-Florio et al., 2018). These risk factors can be prevented through proper guidance, well-lit dwelling, proper labeling, direct supervision, etc. (Gioffrè-Florio et al., 2018). It is also common for older adults to have hypertension and cardiovascular disease, which may impair their ability to respond appropriately to traumatic injuries (Gioffrè-Florio et al., 2018). In addition to the numerous risk factors for the elderly, accidental aspiration and choking are also common in this cohort due to the decreased cough reflex and bronchial airway compliance (Gioffrè-Florio et al., 2018).
Ahmadinejad, M. et al. (2021). Trauma factors among adult and geriatric blunt trauma patients. International Journal of Surgery Open, 28, pp 17-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijso.2020.12.002
Gioffrè-Florio, M., Murabito, L. M., Visalli, C., Pergolizzi, F. P., & Famà, F. (2018). Trauma in elderly patients: a study of prevalence, comorbidities and gender differences. Il Giornale di chirurgia, 39(1), 35–40. https://doi.org/10.11138/gchir/2018.39.1.035
Llompart-Pou, J. A., Pérez-Bárcena, J., Chico-Fernández, M., Sánchez-Casado, M., & Raurich, J. M. (2017). Severe trauma in the geriatric population. World journal of critical care medicine, 6(2), 99–106. https://doi.org/10.5492/wjccm.v6.i2.99