**: Topic 4 DQ 1**

Schmidt (2018) states that the independent variable is, “The experimental or predictor variable. It is manipulated in the research to observe the effect on the dependent variable.” The dependent variable is what is affected by the independent variable. It can change in response to the independent variable (Schmidt, 2018). The article “Experimental study with nursing staff related to the knowledge about pressure ulcers” uses a great example of independent variables and dependent variables. The objective of the study was to compare pressure injury (PI) knowledge with a sample of nurses before and then after receiving a total of 10 hours of education on PI classification, prevention, and treatment. The educational interventions were held for one hour, once a week, for 10 weeks. The education gained from the interventions was the independent variable. The educational resources were a mix of resources; PowerPoint presentations, group discussions, hands-on practice and printed handouts were all used. The researchers could manipulate these resources or change the length of the educational sessions which could affect the amount of knowledge gained (the dependent variable).

Schmidt (2018) defines extraneous variables as “A variable that can influence the relationship between the independent and dependent variables; can be controlled either through research design or statistical procedures; were not foreseen or known at the beginning of the study.” Influencing the independent and dependent variables will affect the outcome of the study. Random control trials (RCTs) are one method for controlling extraneous variables. Riccardo et al. stated, “RCTs are designed to minimize extraneous variables so that a direct cause-and-effect relationship can be discerned between an intervention and an observed outcome. For these reasons they are considered the gold standard for evaluating treatment efficacy according to registration requirements” (2021). Another way to minimize extraneous variables is through random sampling. This won’t eliminate extraneous variables, but it ensures equality between all groups.

using 200-300 words APA format with at least two references to support the discussion.

Compare independent variables, dependent variables, and extraneous variables. Describe two ways that researchers attempt to control extraneous variables. Support your answer with peer-reviewed articles.